Thursday, October 13, 2011

Taylor Swift - My Lovely Idol

Taylor Swift


She is my perfectly Idol.

Luv Taylor 4 the rest of my life

I learned "Never Grow Up" from Taylor
I learned "The Best Day" from Taylor
"Sparks Fly"
"Teardrops On My Guitar"
"Love Story"
"Fifteen"
"Superstar"
"Jump Then Fall"
"Mine"
"Mean"
"Today Was A Fairy Tale"
"Better Than Revenge"
"Should've Said No"
"Cold As You"
"White Horse"

She is the best Singer in my hear and the reason why I like her super crazy much,

one of the reason is because.....

My lucky number is........





1 3


**Check out Taylor's new perfume **

Thursday, April 29, 2010

Thursday, October 15, 2009

How much you'll need before quitting your job!?



How much money will you need to retire? Share your thoughts
So, who are the Averages?To give you an idea of how we reached our conclusions, here are some of the basic assumptions we made: Mr and Mrs Average have two children, which remain financially dependant until our couple hit 50. The family have one foreign holiday a year and run a small car.


According to the Council of Mortgage Lenders, the average mortgagee is 36 and owes £112,030. We'll assume that they keep faith in the NHS and have very average taste in clothes and food. By age 40, they will owe around £110,000 on their mortgage and when they're no longer battling the rush hour traffic, will do up to 6,000 miles a year in their saloon.
According to recent data from comparison site confused.com, these are the Average's outgoings: credit card and loan debt (£2,791 per year), utility bills (£1,167 each year), insurance costs (£1,476.84) mobile and landline phones (£627 per year) and council tax (£1,222). Food costs £3,724 a year.


Find the best paying cash ISA
As well as the boring stuff, it assumes the average person pays out for a TV licence (£142.50 a year) and a satellite or cable package at £225 every year. Internet access will set them back an average of £204 a year.


We'll also let them go on one foreign holiday a year. According to the Expenditure and Food Survey, Office for National Statistics this is £650 per year, but this seems rather low. Research for Holiday-Rentals.co.uk earlier this year put the figure at £2,092, including spending money and holiday wardrobe.


For the couple alone, we're looking at very basic outgoings of around £18,000-per-year, including clothing, car costs and leisure money.
However, kids are expensive. Research published in January 2009 by Liverpool Victoria Friendly Society found that the cost of parenting one child is almost £200,000 (£193,772) until the age of 21.


This figure includes the cost of education, food, clothing, babysitters, uniform, pocket money, presents and all the other trappings of family life.
So for two kids, we're looking at nearly £20,000 a year. We'll assume that Miss and Master Average are dependent, 11-year-old twins, living at home, for the next seven years. This will need a sum of £140,000.


However, the years between 19 and 21 are the most expensive (estimated at nearly £40,000 a year). So for three years, the two will cost £240,000.
Danny Cox of Hargreaves Lansdown explains that any retiree should aim to be mortgage-free, so you already need a lump sum of £110,000 in the kitty just to clear that.


As well as making sure you can sustain this for - what could be - a very long life, you must always have what Cox calls: "a cash cushion, a contingency and emergency fund.
"Normally this would be three to six months' expenditure. For retirees, I think cash balances should be much higher - the chances are that in the early years they are going to spend more (holidays etc).


"I would work on the basis of £50,000 plus any planned capital expenditure and this assumes that they live within their income."
To maintain an income of £18,000 a year, they will need a pot of cash to invest. Cox gives a conservative figure (assuming a yield of 2.5%, or 3% after tax): "For every £100,000 invested this generates £2,500 of income."


Mortgage pay-off: £110,000Contingency: £50,000Investment: £700,000Cost of kids: £380,000
To keep them in a very modest, basic but paid-for lifestyle, they'd need a whopping £1,240,000.
Mr and Mrs Average aged 50When the couple reach 50, something very helpful happens: they become debt-free. This has a significant effect on the amount they need to maintain their lifestyle.


According to finance experts, Your Money Matters, the average age that Brits shake off the shackles of debt (not, sadly, including mortgage debt) is 50 years and 90 days.
This knocks down the amount needed each year by almost £3,000. Also, their mortgage will be closer to £30,000, having been paying it off at 4% for the last decade.
The average annual outgoings will be around £15,000 a year.
Mortgage pay-off: £30,000Contingency: £50,000Investment: £600,000
To keep them in a modest, but paid-for lifestyle, they'd need £680,000.


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Mr and Mrs Average aged 60By the time Mr and Mrs Average reach 60, they have paid off their mortgage and their debts. They will probably still need around £15,000 to live a basic lifestyle, but will not need a lump sum to clear the mortgage.


However as it stands, if they have paid enough in National Insurance Contributions, Mrs Average will now be able to draw a state pension, and Mr Average will be able to in five years (assuming the age of retirement stays the same).
Mrs Average's pension will bring in just under £5,000-per-year. When Mr Average turns 65, this becomes just under £8,000-per-year.


For the next five years, the couple need £10,000 from their investment. After this, they need only £7,000 to supplement the state pension.
Mortgage pay-off: £0Contingency: £50,000Investment: £350,000
To keep them in a very modest, but paid-for lifestyle, they'd need £400,000.


In reality, today's 60-year-olds will most likely be reliant on a state pension or combination of state and private pensions.
Some words of warning, however. We are increasingly taking debt into retirement, while living longer. The average age expectancy of around 80 means very little in relation to 40-year-olds today.


Chris Wicks, financial planner at N-Trust Limited explains, this scenario is very simplified.
"The calculation of the mortgage costs depends on how long is left and what basis it has been set up on. As you can imagine, it is likely that a 60-year-old will have a smaller mortgage than a 40-year-old as they will have paid all or most of it off by then.


"The other problem with the calculation is that you can't just assume a life expectancy of 80 years. A person's life expectancy means that they have a 50:50 chance of making or exceeding it."


The moral of the story is, of course, that Mr and Mrs Average don't exist. If you're genuinely considering retirement options, it's important to seek proper financial advice specific to your individual needs and finances.



****Good Luck****

Monday, June 1, 2009

纵贯线 (最强团体) 亡命之徒

在还没懂什么是纵贯线的时候,脑袋中的纵贯线以为是普通的乐队组合。可是.........是完全错的!!!! 纵贯线是由 "张震岳、周华健、李宗盛、罗大佑" 四名音乐强手所组成的 ---> "纵贯线"!!! 当你听到 "亡命之徒" 这首歌,完全对你刮目相看!!! Come on....一起听吧.... 


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Tuesday, May 26, 2009

Titanic's Incident - What happened on that night?

Sunday Night 11:35 PM - April 14, 1912 - 400 miles off the Grand Banks, New Foundland 

High up in the crows nest of the forward mast that supported the wireless antenna, lookouts Fredrick Fleet and Reginald Lee strained their eyes in the darkness for any unwanted ice that may be in the path of the great liner. The air was cold and the crisp and the North Atlantic breeze enhanced by the mighty liner's near flank speed stung the faces of the two men. The sky was brilliantly speckled with more stars than the mind could comprehend, the water as calm and still as a pond; unusually calm for the North Atlantic in April. 

 “It was a dark night as well, with no moonlight... And the lookouts had no binoculars; the only pair was left back at Southampton.” Lookout Reginald Fleet. (Testimony at US Senate Inquiry investigation of "The Wreck of the steamship Titanic.")

Due to a mix up in a last minute shift of officer's assignments and positions, the lookout crew was without binoculars. High-tech equipment such as infrared technology, sonar, global positioning systems, and radar were still many years away from invention. Peering straight ahead into the darkness, Fleet squinted to see if he could identify the large dark mass that was quickly growing in size as the liner made way ahead. "My God!" he said, while reaching over to grab the pull cord on the ships bell mounted on the mast, Fleet gave it the traditional 3 rings indicating an object sighted. He grabbed the crows nest phone to hear the voice of the ship's 6th officer below in the bridge. "What did you see?" asked the anxious voice

"Iceberg right ahead!," was Fleet's reply. The officer quickly acknowledged with a "Thank you," and the phone was hung up. "Iceberg right ahead!" was repeated again in the bridge. The first officer quickly looked out of the ship's bridge windows. Seeing the berg looming off the bow, he turned and shouted "hard astarboard" to the quartermaster tending the ships wheel in the wheelhouse. At the same time the office reached over to the ship's telegrapg and rang in the order "all stop" and then "all reverse full". The quartermaster now had the ship's wheel spun over as far as it would go. The men in the bridge were peering forward to see if the helm would respond in time. 


The first officer felt a slight feeling of relief as it became obvious that the ship was going to avoid a head-on collision with the mammoth iceberg. The ship's bow was coming around ever so slowly, but a hit was inevitable. Just as it looked like the giant liner was going to escape unscathed, a slight shuddering and vibration was felt in the bridge as the ship sideswiped the berg on her starboard side. One passenger later compared the feeling of the impact to the ship as that of "rolling over a million marbles." Literally tons of ice began to fall onto the ship's forward area and in to the forward well deck as the berg quickly passed by. 

Most of the ship's passengers were unaware of anything occurring. A few card players and those enjoying a late nightcap felt the slight jar and came out on to the boat deck in time to see the berg vanishing astern into the darkness. As a precaution, Titanic's First Officer William Murdoch now reached over and activated the electric switch that would lower the ship's watertight doors in the bulkheads that divided the ship.

Titanic's Captain, Edward J. Smith, had been napping in the chart room after leaving the orders: "If it becomes at all doubtful let me know at once." He was now on the bridge. Looking at his first officer he asked "What have we struck?" "An iceberg, sir ", was the reply.

Captain Smith summoned the ship's carpenter Thomas Andrews, one of Titanic's designers from Harland & Wolff Shipbuilders. Andrews was traveling on Titanic's maiden voyage to work out any "bugs" that might occur  with the new liner. Both men were asked to conduct a visual inspection to access the ship's damage and report back.

Titanic's Captain, Edward J. (EJ) Smith

Twenty minutes later, Captain Smith was all too aware of the fate of his ship, and equally aware of the fact that Titanic's lifeboat accommodations were far fewer than the number of passengers and crew on board. Smith would now for the first time in nearly 40 years at sea, give the orders to abandon ship. He expressed to his officers the necessity of calmness and order in the evacuation. His orders were to see that the crew informed everyone on board and to report to the boat deck with their lifebelts on. The order was given to swing out the boats.

Now, at 12:05 A.M., only 30 minutes since the berg was initially sighted, lifeboats were being uncovered, and ship was beginning to take a noticeable dip forward. The squash courts, 32 feet above the level of the ship's keel, were awash. Passengers (mostly first class, being closest to the boat deck) were beginning to appear on deck, many having just slipped a coat on over their night clothes and not realizing the seriousness of the situation. 
Titanic's small band, under the leadership of Wallace Hartley, came out on to the boat deck and began playing a medley of cheerful ragtime turnes to keep spirits up. 

Lifeboats were now lowering, the first few but half full. Passengers were hesitant to climb in, thinking the whole procedure was unnecessary. People were saying
"This ship can't possibly sink, It's supposed to be unsinkable" This dreadful fact was becoming more apparent however as time passed. A deafening roar was present as coal stokers were drawing out the fires and relieving pressure from the boilers to prevent an explosion from the cold seawater rushing in from the bowels of the ship. The hiss of distress rockets being fired way up into the darkness overhead amused the children as their parents were trying to get them aboard lifeboats.

Titanic's bow section was now completely underwater and her stern was beginning to rise. More people from below had now worked their way out on to the boat deck, but there were very few lifeboats remaining. The last few boats had been filled to capacity. "Women and Children first" was the general rule. Some of the men had quietly stepped aside, a few had jumped down to the life boats as they were lowering. Some were already diving into the water from the deck. Overall there was no panic; not yet.

Titanic fires distress rockets in hope that a nearby ship will render assistance.

Titanic was now assuming a horrible list. It had become evident to all on board that the ship was indeed going to sink. Captain Smith personally went to the wireless shack and instructed operators Bride and Phillips to send out the distress call, and gave the ship's position. The Cunard ship, Carpathia was 58 miles away, but still 4 hours out. She signaled that she was en route, but Captain Smith knew Titanicwould be gone before she arrived.


Items within the ship could be heard crashing through walls toward the sinking bow, as Titanic made her final "headstand". The boilers were tearing from their beds and smashing through bulkheads. One survivor later compared the sound to distant  thunder rumbling. People were struggling to climb to the back of the ship as it began to rise in a vain attempt to seek a higher area away from the swirling water. Suddenly, a giant wave washed over the deck as water filled the last remaining compartments, sweeping many overboard. 

Slowly, the mammoth liner now began her final dive in an almost perpendicular position. Her lights flickered a couple of times, then went out for good as the stern disappeared from the surface. Screams and moans could be heard from those struggling in the frigid water. Some passengers in the lifeboats wanted to return to retrieve these poor souls but were quickly told by others that they would surely be swamped if they tried. Amazingly, some of the very same women that protested to officers on the boat deck about their husbands not being allowed to board, were the very same that protested returning to rescue those in the water. The yells quickly faded out one by one as the victims lost consciousness and succumbed to their fate. Two boats, one boat under the command of surviving 5th officer Harold Lowe did manage to pick up a few from the water after transferring passengers from one lifeboat to two other boats. Another boat, under the charge of Seaman Perkis, managed to pick up three victims from the frigid water.

A few hours later the remaining passengers in the lifeboats spotted green colored rockets going up in the distance. It was the 
Carpathia, she was signaling that she was near. Of approximately 2,227 passengers on board Titanic, only 705 survived.

(Left) Titanic Departed Southampton from this dock

Fredrick Fleet, Titanic Lookout. First to spot the iceberg.

After the Titanic disaster, Fleet worked for a short time (June-August, 1912) on the Olympic as a seaman. Unfortunately, the White Star Line looked at formerTitanic crew members working on other WSL vessels as both an embarrassment to the company and as a  "bad omen" in the eyes of the passengers. He sailed with the Union-Castle Mail Steamship Co. working various positions and left the sea in 1936. He worked as a shipbuilder for Harland and Wolff's Southampton shipyard during World War II after which he became a night watchman once again, for the Union-Castle Line. In his later years, he sold newspapers on a street corner in Southampton.

After a series of personal problems; the recent loss of his wife, eviction from his home by his brother-in-law, Fredrick Fleet, the first man on Titanic to spot the iceberg and warn the bridge, hung himself on a clothes line in his backyard in 1965.




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Tuesday, May 12, 2009

秦国历史 (Qin Dynasty BC~259)

秦国是春秋战国时期的一个诸侯国。秦人是华夏族的一支,传说周武王因秦的祖先善养马,因此将他们封在秦。前770年,秦襄公护送周平王东迁有功,被封为诸侯,秦始建国。从前677年起,秦国在雍建都近300年。雍城有宫殿区、居住区、士大夫与国人墓葬区和秦公陵园。

秦最初的领地在今天陕西省,在当时属于中国的边缘部分。一直到战国初期秦一直是一个比较弱的国家,也许正因为它地处偏僻,因此它一直没有受到其他国家的重视。在春秋时代它是一个比较不显眼的国家。就科学技术,文化等等而言秦在战国初期也比较落后。这个形势一直到前361年商鞅变法才开始改变。从此秦国开始不断强大。前325年秦惠文王称王。前316年秦灭蜀,从此秦正式成为一个大国。前237年嬴政登基,开始了他对六国的征服。从前230年秦灭韩国起,到前221年秦灭齐国,统一中国。

自前221年起中国历史正式进入封建社会,秦国成为了中国历史上第一个多民族的统一的中央集权制国家——秦朝。

社会经济
秦国社会经济仍以农业为主。春秋时代晚期,出现了铸铁农具。战国时代,修建了郑国渠、都江堰等水利工程,进一步促使农业生产发展。手工业以冶铜和制陶最为发达。发明了铬盐氧化处理兵器的新工艺;建筑材料颇具特色,瓦当更是精美的艺术品。   
   
    
  葬仪
秦国国君陵园在雍城陵区发现13座,芷阳陵区发现4座,士大夫与国人墓葬已发掘到近千座,国君称王前使用“中”字形诸侯级墓制,称王后使用“亚”字形王级墓制,广泛使用人殉,殉葬物品丰富,规模宏大。   
 
  军事
秦国军队自商鞅变法实行奖励军功政策后愈战愈勇。武器装备不断改进。兵种已有步、车、骑之分。军队数量多时达到“带甲之士百万”,出现了尉缭、白起、王翦等著名军事家和将领。   
    
  秦襄公

(?--公元前766年)非自第五代孙,居犬丘。公元前771年,周幽王烽火戏诸侯,造成内乱,犬戎族乘机攻破周都镐京,西周灭亡。时秦襄公率兵保护平王迁都洛邑,东周开始。秦襄公作为东周王室第一功臣,受封诸侯,原周王室直辖的歧山以西土地也全部赐于秦作为领地。公元前766年,秦襄公在战争中阵亡,葬于故地西垂。   

 
  秦文公

秦襄公之子,生年不详,卒于公元前716年。前762年“东猎”至“千渭之会”,即千河与渭河交会处一带建邑,前753年初设史官记事,前750年收编周朝遗民,领地扩展到岐山。在位50年。   
   
   
秦宪公

长男,为太子,公元前六九七年至前六七八年在位。   
 
  秦出子
5岁即位,在位6年被杀。秦出子是秦宁公小儿子   
   
  秦武公
3年(公元前695年),武公把那些害死小弟弟的乱臣贼子杀了.
前678年,秦武公死了.
秦武公是秦出子的大哥。   
   
   
  秦德公

秦德公是秦出子的二哥。   
    
  秦宣公

秦德公的大子。 
 
秦成公

秦德公的二子。 

秦穆公

秦德公的三子。
秦穆公 嬴任好 (?-前前621)
秦僻处西陲,周初为附庸小国,春秋初年因秦襄公助平王东迁才被封为诸侯,并承平王赐给岐山以西之地,後定都於雍(今陕西凤翔南)。到了秦穆公(前六五九年 — 前六二一年执政)时,国势逐渐强大起来。秦穆公名任好,赢姓,秦国历史上一位有作为的君主。他在位期间,内修国政,外图霸业,统一了今甘肃、宁夏等地,开始了秦国的崛起。 

  秦国原是居住在秦亭(今甘肃张家川)周围的一个赢姓部落。秦襄公因护送平王东迁(见周幽王)有功,封为诸侯,赐给歧以西地,正式建国。经文、宁、武、德、宣诸公,秦的疆土不断东移,到穆公继位时, 已占有大半个关中。
  秦穆公继位当年(前659年),就亲自带兵讨伐茅津(今山西芮城东)的戎人,开始了扩张疆土的事业。秦穆公娶晋太子申生的姊姊穆姬为妻。穆公五年(前655年),晋献公灭虞,俘虏了虞公及其大夫井伯、百里奚,就将他们作为穆姬的媵人(随嫁的人)陪嫁到秦国。百里奚不愿忍受奴隶的生活,逃到宛(今河南南阳),被楚国人捉去。

秦穆公胸怀大志,却苦於无贤才辅佐。有人告诉他,穆姬媵人百里奚是不可多得的人材,他喜出望外,急忙去请,却得知百里奚已经逃到楚国。秦穆公愿以重金赎回百里奚,又怕楚人不给。於是派使者到楚,说:「中国的媵奴百里奚逃到贵国,请允许我方用五张公羊皮将他赎回。」楚国一看此人如此不值钱,也就答应了秦的要求。当七十馀岁的百里奚被押回秦国时,秦穆公亲自为他打开桎梏,与他商谈国事。百里奚说:「我是亡国之臣,哪裏值得君公垂询!」穆公说:「虞君不用你,才使你被掳,并不是你的过错。」坚持向百里奚讨教,两人一直谈了三天,穆公十分高兴,以百里奚为国相。由於百里奚是用五张公羊皮赎回来的,所以人称其为「五羖大夫」。百里奚辞让道:「我不如我的朋友蹇叔。蹇叔贤能而不为世人了解。当年我在外漫游受困於齐,不得已向别人乞讨,是蹇叔收留了我。我因此想到齐君无知那儿做事,是蹇叔阻止了我,使我幸免与无知一起被杀。我到周地,见王子颓喜欢牛,就以养牛去接近他。後来,王子颓想用我,又是蹇叔阻止了我,使我免於被诛。我到虞君手下做事,蹇叔又阻止我。我也知道虞君不会信用我,只是为了那一份俸禄和爵位,暂时留下来,想不到就当了俘虏。从这三件事,我深知蹇叔的贤能。」秦穆公於是用很重的礼品,将蹇叔请来秦国,任命他为上大夫。

  秦国要发展,首当其冲的是其东邻晋国。在百里奚和蹇叔的辅佐下,秦穆公将注意力集中於晋。 晋献公晚年,骊姬之乱,公子重耳和夷吾出逃。穆公九年(前651年)晋献公死,驴姬子奚齐继位, 旋即被其臣里克杀死。秦穆公派百里奚带兵送夷吾回国继位,为晋惠公。夷吾事先答应将河西八城割给秦作为谢礼,但继位後却毁约。晋臣丕豹逃到秦国,受到穆公重用。十二年(前648年)晋国旱 灾,秦穆公运了大量粟米给晋。十四年(前646年),秦国发生饥荒,晋国不仅不给秦国粮食救灾,反而乘机出兵,於次年攻秦。双方在韩原大战,秦军最终生俘晋惠公。在周襄王和穆姬的请求下,秦穆公与晋惠公结盟後,将其放回。晋惠公送太子圉到秦国为质子,并将黄河以西的地方献给秦国, 秦的东部疆界扩至龙门。二十三年(前637年),晋惠公死,其子子圉逃回国继位,为怀公,继续迫害逃亡的公子重耳。秦穆公於是将重耳从楚国迎来,以极为隆重的礼节接待,将女儿文嬴及四位宗女嫁其为妻,然後於次年送重耳回国为君,是为晋文公。晋文公杀死子圉,在秦的参与下,尊王攘夷,败楚城濮,成为霸主。三十年(前630年),秦又出兵帮助晋文公围郑。郑老臣烛之武夜裏从围城中绳出,见秦穆公说:「郑国灭亡,於秦不利。晋人这次开拓了东边的领土,下次就会向西边的秦国用兵。大君何必损害自己国家的利益,共帮助晋国呢?」秦穆公於是与郑结盟,留杞子、逢孙、杨孙戍守,罢兵而还。
   
秦穆公三十二年(前628年)冬,晋文公死。这时,杞子从郑国派人送信回国,说:「郑人将北门的钥匙交给了我,如果悄悄地派军队来,郑国就能得到。」秦穆公问蹇叔和百里奚,两人回答道:「经过几个国家几千里路去袭击别人,很少有成功的。我军的行动郑国一定会知道,不能去!」秦穆公说:「我已经决定了,你俩不必再说。」於是派遣百里奚的儿子孟明视、蹇叔的儿子西乞术和白乞丙三将带兵出发。百里奚和蹇叔哭著为军队送行,秦穆公很生气,说:「我出兵,你们却哭著沮丧我军的士气,这是为什麼?」二老答道:「我们并不敢沮丧士气。只是我们年纪大了,儿子要出征,怕以後再也见不看了!」二老对其儿子说:「你们的军队一定会吃败仗,晋人将在崤山阻击。」三十三年(前627年)春,秦军东去,经过成周北门时,车左、车右都脱去头盔下车致敬,随即跳上车去的有三百辆战车的将士。王孙满看了以後说:「秦军轻挑而无礼,一定会失败!」秦军经过滑国时,郑国的商人弦高正贩了牛准备到周去卖,见秦军,就将所带的十二头牛全部迭给秦军,说:「听说大国将要诛灭郑,郑君已经作好迎战的准备,派我先迭十二头牛犒劳贵军士卒。」秦军三位将军商量道:「郑国已经知道我军要去袭击,去了也没有用。」於是灭了滑国,往回撤兵。滑是晋国的同姓之国。当时,晋文公还没有下葬。太子襄公愤怒地说:「秦国欺侮我丧父,乘机攻灭我的同姓之国。」於是, 将丧服染成黑色,出兵在崤山阻击,大败秦军,将三位秦将全部俘获。

  晋文公的夫人文赢,是秦穆公的女儿,她对襄公说:「这三人挑拨我们两国国君的关系,穆公对三人恨入骨髓。你何必自己去杀他们呢?不如放他们回去,让穆公去将他们煮死!」晋襄公同意了。秦穆公穿了素服,哭看到郊外迎接孟明视等人,说:「我不听从百里奚和蹇叔的话,使你们三位遭受耻辱,你们有什麼错?你们要专心谋划报仇雪耻,不可懈怠!」恢复了三人的官职,对他们更加信任 了。三十四年(前62前6年),秦穆公又派孟明视等带兵东向,与晋军战於彭衙(今陕西白水东北),秦 军再次失败。两次较量,秦东进的路被晋牢牢地扼住,只得转而向西发展。

  当峙,在今陕甘宁一带,生活著许多戎狄的部落和小国,如陇山以西有昆戎、绵诸、翟,泾北有义渠、乌氏、朐衍之戎,洛川有大荔之戎,渭南有陆浑之戎。他们生产落後,披发衣皮, 各有君长,不相统一。他们常常突袭秦的边地,抢掠粮食、牲畜,掳夺子女,给秦人造成很大的苦难。秦穆公向西发展,采取了比较谨慎的策略,先强後弱,次第征服。当时,西戎诸部落中较强的是绵诸(在今甘肃天水市东)、义渠(在今甘肃宁县北)和大荔(今陕西大荔东)。其中,绵诸有王,住地在秦的故土附近,与秦疆土相接。正好,绵诸王听说秦穆公贤能,派了由余出使秦国。秦穆公隆重接待由余,向他展示秦国壮丽的宫室和丰裕的积储,向他了解西戎的地形、兵势。又用内史廖的策略,挽留由余在秦居住。同时,给绵诸王送去女乐二八。动听美妙的秦国音乐舞蹈,使戎王大享眼耳之福。他终日饮酒享乐,不理政事,国内大批牛马死亡,也不加过问。等到绵诸国内政事一塌糊涂,秦穆公这才让由余回国。由余的劝谏,受到戎王的拒绝。在秦人的规劝下,由余终於归向秦国。秦穆公以宾客之礼接待由余,和他讨论统一西方戎族的策略。

  穆公三十六年(前624年),秦穆公亲自率兵讨伐晋国,渡过黄河以後,将渡船全部焚毁,表示誓死克敌的决心。秦军夺得王官(今山西闻喜西)和郊。晋军不敢出战,秦军从茅津渡过黄河,到南岸崤地,在当年的战场为战死的将士堆土树立标记,然後回国。三十七年(前623年),秦军出征西 戎,以迅雷不及掩耳之势,包围了绵诸,在酒樽之下活捉了绵诸王。秦穆公乘胜前进,二十多个戎 狄小国先後归服了秦国。秦国辟地千里,国界南至秦岭,西达狄道(今甘肃临洮),北至朐衍戎(今宁夏盐池),东到黄河,史称「秦穆公霸西戎」。周襄王派遣召公过带了金鼓送给秦穆公,以表示祝贺。

  三十九年(前621年),秦穆公死,安葬於雍(今陕西凤翔东南),殉葬而死的有一百七十七人, 其中包括子舆氏的三个儿子奄息、仲行、针虎。这三人十分善良、勇武,国人对此悲痛万分,赋《黄鸟》之诗,唱道:「彼苍者天,歼我良人;如可赎兮,人百其身!」意思是,青天呵,怎麼将这麼善良的人给殉葬了?如果可以赎命,我们宁愿出一百条命将他们换回来! 

秦康公

秦穆公之子。
当年秦康公送他
的舅舅重耳回国,送到渭阳,作诗云:“我送舅氏,曰到渭阳”后人
以渭阳喻甥舅关系。 

秦桓公

秦桓公与晋厉公订盟,但后来秦桓公急欲向东发展而背约,与狄合力攻晋。公元前578年(桓公二十六年),晋率诸侯伐秦,秦军大败,退至泾。 

秦哀公
申包胥痛哭七天七夜,秦哀公出兵救楚。 

秦惠公

秦简公的儿子,秦惠公做了十三年国君,死了。 

秦悼公

秦悼公在位十四年去世。 

秦厉共公

春秋末期秦国君主。秦悼公之子。
公元前476~前443年在位。秦厉共公在位期间,蜀人、楚人、义渠之戎
都曾朝贡献礼。前476年,派兵拔魏城。前461年,沿黄河修筑防御濠沟。
同年,以兵2万伐大荔之戎(今陕西大荔朝邑一带),取其城。前457年,
他率师与绵竹之戎(今 甘肃天水东)战。前451年,筑南
郑(今陕西汉中)城,置县。前444年,他派兵攻义渠之戎,执义渠王。
秦厉共公执政期间的这些举措,为秦国的富国强兵作了一定准备。 

秦怀公

秦躁公卒,其弟从晋归来即位,是为怀公。 
秦庶长晁等包围秦怀公自杀。

秦献公

秦献公即位,下令废除用人殉葬的恶习。次年又迁都栋立,决心彻底改革,便下令招贤。 
 
秦孝公

秦孝公 嬴渠梁 (前381-前338)
战国时代秦国有名的一位君主,他任用商鞅进行变法,使秦国开始富强起来. 商鞅变法是先秦最彻底的一场变革,它取消世袭的特权,规定按军公给予爵位和田宅奴隶,使秦国国富民强,为後来的统一六国开辟道路. 
 
 
秦惠文王

战国时秦国君主。名嬴驷。孝公之子。公元前337~前311年在位。
惠文王为太子时犯法,商鞅行法,曾黥其师傅公子虔。故孝公一死,他将商鞅车
裂。然而他并未废除商鞅之法。在位期间,集军政大权于一身,任用贤能,推行法治,并不断向外拓展领土。孝公时期的变法,经惠文王继续推行,确立了秦封建制度。 
 
 
完壁归赵就是秦昭襄王。
秦孝文王

秦孝文王在位时间短暂,政绩平庸,是
秦国历史上一位无足轻重的君王 
 
秦庄襄王 

秦庄襄王是 战国 末期的秦王,本名异人,后为华阳夫人子,故另赐名子楚,前249年至前246年在位。 秦始皇 之父。相传他尚在 赵国 为质子之时,为 吕不韦 相中,并加以栽培,成功得到秦王的地位。由于他突如其来的早逝,有人认为是因为他撞破了吕不韦与赵姬的奸情而被吕不韦所杀。 
 
秦始皇

秦始皇(前259~前210),中国统一的秦王朝的开国皇帝,嬴姓,名政。秦庄襄王之子。 13岁即王位, 39岁称帝。战国末年,秦国实力最强,已具备统一东方六国的条件。秦王政初即位时,国政为相国吕不韦所把持。公元前238年,他亲理国事,免除吕不韦的相职,并任用尉缭、李斯等人。自公元前230年至前221年,先后灭韩、魏、楚、燕、赵、齐六国,终于建立了中国历史上第一个统一的、多民族的、专制主义中央集权制国家—秦朝。 

秦王政创立了“皇 帝”的尊号,自称始皇帝,宣布子孙称二世、三世,以至万世,代代承袭。随后,他在全国范围内废除分封制,代以郡县制;在皇帝的直接控制下,建立自中央直至郡县的一整套官僚机构。以秦国原有的法律令为基础,吸收六国法律的某些条文,制定和颁行统一的法律。将原六国贵族豪富迁至关中、巴蜀,以防止他们的分裂复辟活动。又明令禁止民间收藏武器,销毁没收得来的武器,铸造12个金人。 

在经济上推行重农抑商政策,扶植封建土地私有制的发展。始皇三十一年(前 216)下令占有土地的地主和自耕农只要向政府申报土地数额,交纳赋税,其土地所有权就得到政府的承认和保护,并以商鞅所制定的度量衡为标准统一全国的度量衡制度。统一全国币制。为发展全国水陆交通,又实行“车同轨”,修建由咸阳通向燕齐和吴楚地区的驰道,以及由咸阳经云阳(今陕西淳化西北)直达九原(今内蒙古包头西)的直道;在西南地区修筑了“五尺道”,开凿沟通湘江和漓江的灵渠。 

在文化思想方面,以秦国通行的文字为基础制定小篆,颁行全国。并利用战国阴阳家的五德终始说,以秦得水德,水色黑,终数六,因而规定衣服旄旌节旗皆尚黑,符传、法冠、舆乘等制度都以六为数。水主阴,阴代表刑杀,于是以此为依据加重严刑酷法的实施。始皇三十四年,下令销毁民间所藏《诗》、《书》、百家语,禁止私学。随后因求仙药的侯生、卢生逃亡,牵连儒生、方士四百余人,而将其全部坑杀于咸阳。 

秦始皇即位后,派蒙恬率兵出击匈奴,还把战国时秦、赵、燕三国北边的长城连结起来,修筑西起临洮(今甘肃岷县)东至辽东的万里长城。在征服百越地区后,设置桂林、象郡、南海等郡。始皇末年,秦郡数由统一之初的36郡增至40余郡,其版图“东至海暨朝鲜,西至临洮、羌中,南至北向户,北据河为塞,并阴山至辽东”。 

秦始皇在统一六国之后,修建豪华的阿房宫和骊山墓,先后进行五次大规模的巡游,在名山胜地刻石纪功,炫耀声威。为求长生不老之药,又派方士徐(即徐福)率童男女数千人至东海求神仙等等,耗费了巨大的财力和人力,加深了人民的苦难。三十七年,秦始皇巡游返至平原津得病。于是作书命长子扶苏送葬,并继嗣帝位。行至沙丘(今河北广宗西北),秦始皇病死。赵高勾结始皇少子胡亥和李斯,伪造遗诏立胡亥为太子,并赐扶苏死。秦二世胡亥即位后不久,即爆发陈胜、吴广领导的农民大起义。秦朝灭亡。

Monday, May 11, 2009

Transformers: Revenge of The Fallen








































Release On 24th June 2009
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